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How Does Selenium automation Framework Work?

Selenium is widely used in the testing industry, and it is a popular choice for test automation because it is open-source, has good support for a variety of browsers and operating systems, and has a large and active user community.

Selenium Test Scripts can be written in a variety of programming languages, including Java, C#, Python, and others. Selenium testing is the term used to describe testing carried out using the Selenium testing tool.

The integration of artificial intelligence and machine learning into automation, as exemplified by Selenium, has greatly improved and simplified testing processes, paving the way for digital transformation.

What is the Selenium Framework?

Selenium is a suite of automation testing tools that can be used to automate interactions with desktop and mobile web browsers. The suite includes multiple frameworks, with the Selenium WebDriver being the most widely used. Selenium is used to create automated regression testing suites and scripts for applications and processes. While the Selenium WebDriver is the primary interface for controlling a browser, it is important to be aware of the other tools in the suite as well in order to choose the best tool for a particular task.

The three most popular tools are Selenium IDE, Selenium Webdriver, and Selenium Grid.

  • Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) 

Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is a browser add-on that provides a user-friendly interface for creating Selenium test cases. It includes features such as recording, testing prototypes, and playback, and allows for the export of test cases in various languages. This tool is primarily used to capture all browser activity from the user and can be helpful for learning Selenium script syntax. It is an efficient method for creating Selenium test cases.

  • Selenium Grid

Selenium Grid is a tool used to run tests in parallel or distributed environments. It allows you to run test scripts on multiple machines with different operating systems and browsers. When tests are triggered, Grid automatically executes them on the remote end. Using Selenium Grid can help you reduce testing time by running tests simultaneously on multiple operating systems and browsers.

  • Selenium WebDriver 

Selenium WebDriver is a tool that enables automated communication between a program and a web browser. This allows you to run tests and perform tasks on the web without needing to manually interact with the browser. WebDriver uses browser automation APIs provided by browser vendors to control the browser and perform tests. It is a more reliable and efficient solution compared to Selenium IDE, as it communicates directly with the browser rather than relying on JavaScript. WebDriver is also stable and easy to use for automating web browser tasks.

Selenium WebDriver has created three types of frameworks to automate manual test cases:

  1. Data Driven Framework: This framework separates test data from the test code, allowing the same test to be run using different data sets.
  1. Keyword Driven Framework: This framework is based on the idea of creating keywords for common actions and using them to create test cases.
  1. Hybrid-Driven Framework: This framework combines elements of both data-driven and keyword-driven frameworks, allowing for greater flexibility in creating and executing test cases.

When choosing a Selenium tool, you should consider the following factors:

  • Selenium IDE: This is a good choice for learning about automated testing and Selenium concepts, creating simple test cases and test suites, and testing web applications against Firefox and Chrome.
  • Selenium WebDriver: This is a good choice for using a specific programming language to design test cases, test applications with rich AJAX-based functionality, execute tests on the HtmlUnit browser, and create customized test results.
  • Selenium Grid: You should choose Selenium Grid when you need to run tests in parallel or distributed environments. This means that you want to run multiple tests at the same time on different machines, operating systems, and/or browsers.

Using Selenium Grid can help you reduce testing time by allowing you to run tests concurrently rather than sequentially. It is especially useful when you need to test your application against a large number of combinations of operating systems and browsers.

Why Should You Use Selenium for Automated Browser Testing?

Now that we are familiar with Selenium’s structure and the available tools, let’s look at its primary features or advantages and why they make it a useful tool for automated testing:

  • Selenium is free to download and use because it is open source, which means no fees or licensing are necessary. Many other automation solutions out there do not work like this.
  • In real-world circumstances, you can automate activities like key presses, mouse clicks, drag-and-drop, click-and-hold, selecting, and more. As was already said, Selenium WebDriver can simulate user input.
  • Implementation is simple thanks to Selenium WebDriver. Selenium WebDriver is a well-known automation tool that is easy to use. Because Selenium is open source, users can create extensions to suit their own requirements.
  • A tool for any situation: Selenium is a collection of tools, so chances are you’ll find one that works for your situation and your working style.
  • Multilingual support is a significant advantage. Selenium offers the developer a great deal of freedom and flexibility by supporting all popular programming languages, including Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, C#, Perl,.Net, and PHP.
  • Support for operating systems, devices and several browsers is provided by Selenium. Operating systems, as well as Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer, Edge, and Safari (Windows, Linux, Mac)
  • Framework Support: A wide range of frameworks are supported by Selenium.

 How does a Selenium automation tool work?

  • The first step is to identify the test cases that need to be automated. This typically involves reviewing the requirements of the application and identifying areas that would benefit from automated testing.
  • Next, you will need to design the structure of your automation framework. This typically involves deciding on the tools and technologies you will use (e.g. programming language, test runner, assertion library), as well as the overall architecture of the framework (e.g. page object model, data-driven testing).
  • Once the framework is designed, you can start implementing your test cases. This typically involves writing code to interact with the web application and verify that it is behaving as expected.
  • Once the test cases are implemented, you can execute them using the framework. This typically involves running a test runner that will execute the tests and report on their results.
  • Finally, you must maintain the framework and test cases over time. This may involve updating the test cases as the application changes, as well as keeping the framework and its dependencies up to date.

LambdaTest is a cloud-based platform that enables you to perform automated and manual testing of web applications and websites across a range of browsers, operating systems, and devices. In the context of Selenium automation, you can use LambdaTest to run your Selenium scripts and test cases on a cloud-based Selenium grid, which consists of a wide range of different browser and operating system configurations.

This can be particularly useful if you need to test your application across a large number of different environments, or if you don’t have the resources to maintain your own Selenium grid in-house.

Selenium is a widely used tool for automating the testing of web-based applications, but it does have some limitations. These include:

  • Complexity: Setting up a test environment with Selenium can be complex, particularly when compared to vendor products. This can make it difficult for testers to complete their tasks on time.
  • Limited support for image tests: Selenium does not offer any built-in support for testing images, which can be a problem for applications that rely heavily on visual elements.
  • No support for test management: Selenium does not integrate with any testing tools for test management, which can make it difficult to track and manage the progress of your tests.
  • Limited support for non-web-based applications: Selenium is primarily designed for testing web-based applications, and does not offer support for testing native mobile or desktop applications.
  • Limited reporting capabilities: Selenium does not offer any built-in reporting capabilities, which can make it difficult to track the progress and results of your tests.

LambdaTest can help overcome some of these limitations by providing a cloud-based platform for running Selenium scripts and test cases. With LambdaTest, you can easily test your application across a wide range of different browser and operating system configurations, and track the progress of your tests in real-time. Additionally, LambdaTest integrates with a variety of test management tools, making it easier to track and manage the progress of your tests.

Some of the key benefits of using LambdaTest for Selenium automation include:

  • Access to a wide range of different browser and operating system configurations: With LambdaTest, you can test your application on a variety of different browsers (including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge) and operating systems (such as Windows, macOS, and Linux). This can be particularly useful if you need to ensure that your application is compatible with a wide range of different environments.
  • Easy to set up and use: LambdaTest provides a simple interface that makes it easy to set up and run your Selenium scripts on the cloud-based grid. You can either use the LambdaTest platform directly or integrate it with your existing automation tools and frameworks (such as Jenkins, Travis CI, or CircleCI).
  • Scalability: With LambdaTest, you can easily scale up or down the number of parallel test runs based on your testing needs. This can be useful if you have a large number of test cases that need to be run in parallel, or if you need to test your application under heavy load.
  • Real-time testing: LambdaTest provides real-time testing capabilities, which means you can see the progress of your tests as they are running. This can be particularly useful for debugging purposes, as you can see exactly what is happening during the test execution.


Selenium is a tool that is useful for developers and testers to help ensure the quality and readiness of an application for the market. It can be utilized effectively even without a lot of experience with scripting languages.

Selenium is expected to continue to have a significant impact on the way testing is conducted in the future. Its ability to automate various types of tests, including functional, regression, and acceptance tests, makes it a valuable tool for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the testing process.

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